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Glossary

Preventing Plagiarism

Academic Integrity: Academic work is created and completed by each individual student, without cheating, plagiarizing, or receiving assistance without the instructor’s permission.

Attribution: to give credit to an author or the creator of a scholarly work.

Bibliography: a list of works (books, articles, websites, etc.) referred to in a research paper. The list often includes works that were consulted but not explicitly referred to. Bibliographies include a citation for each work, and are often found at the end of a research paper. Bibliographies are sometimes referred to as Works Cited pages or Reference List.

Cite: to refer to a source of information. When you cite, you acknowledge the sources in your paper that you quoted, paraphrased or summarized.

Citation: a note that acknowledges the source of information from a book, article, online source or other resource. Citations usually include the author, title, year of publication, publisher and page number. There are different styles for creating citations, (see below) and each style has different requirements on what should be included. Citations can take the form of footnotes, endnotes , parenthetical references, or a bibliography. The purpose of a citation is to help readers locate the source of your information—professors often check citations in student papers to ensure that they are valid sources.

Citation Style: guidelines and formats for acknowledging references and specific details on what bibliographic information to include, and in what order. Popular styles include APA, which is mainly used in the social sciences, MLA, which is used in the humanities, and Chicago, which is used across many disciplines and subject areas.

Common Knowledge: facts and information that can be found in numerous different sources and are widely known by a lot of different people. Common knowledge generally does not need to be cited in a paper because the information is well known.

Copyright: the exclusive legal right granted to an author, composer, playwright, or publisher to publish, produce, sell or distribute literary, musical, dramatic, or artistic work

Direct Quotes: text taken word for word from the original work, with quotation marks at the beginning and the end of the phrase or paragraph used.

Fair Use: Copyright states that the owner has the right to “reproduce or authorize others to reproduce” his or her work. Fair use is one of the limitations of copyright, and states that “reproduction of a particular work may be considered ‘fair,’ such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.” There are four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair: 1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; 2) the nature of the copyrighted work; 3) amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and 4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Google Notebook: a free web based tool that allows the user to “clip” and organize information from web pages. The “clippings” are stored online and are accessible from any computer.

Intentional Plagiarism: to deliberately and knowingly plagiarize someone else’s work.

Paraphrase: to restate a portion of text in your own words, using the original ideas of the author. Correct paraphrasing involves completely rewriting in your own words an expression of the original idea—substituting one or more words is not considered correct paraphrasing.

Plagiarism: to steal, use or pass off other peoples words, ideas and words as your own without proper acknowledgment or credit to the original source.

Plagiarism (Intentional): to deliberately and knowingly plagiarize someone else’s work.

Plagiarism (Unintentional): to plagiarize without knowing that you are doing it, to plagiarize without the intent to steal. Many students plagiarize without knowing that they are doing anything wrong.

Public Domain: materials available to the public that are not owned by any one person. Works are usually copyrighted for a set amount of time--when a work is no longer copyrighted, it enters the public domain.

Quote: to state the exact words of an author in your paper. Quotation marks are often used at the beginning and end of each quoted section inserted into the paper and must be cited. Page numbers where the original words can be found are often included.

Research Journal: a place to record the research process. Used regularly, the journal tracks each occurrence of searching for a resource, details on where the resource is located, and also includes all the information needed to properly cite and document the resource appropriately. (see: citation) A research journal can be a paper notebook, an online tool like Google Notebook, or any method that works for the individual.

Source: a firsthand document, statement, interview, video, or primary reference work used in the creation of a research paper. Sources can include books, articles, websites, conversations, movies and more.

Style Guides/Style Manual/Citation Guides: a book or online guide that gives guidelines and formats for acknowledging references and specific details on what bibliographic information to include, and in what order. Some of the popular styles are published by various organizations including APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago (Chicago University Press) and give detailed instructions on each style. APA is mainly used in the social sciences, MLA is used in the humanities, and Chicago is used across many disciplines and subject areas.
Unintentional Plagiarism: to plagiarize without knowing that you are doing it, to plagiarize without the intent to steal. Many students plagiarize without knowing that they are doing anything wrong.

Works Cited Page: this page is inserted at the end of the research paper, and all books, articles, and other research sources that are referred to in the main paper must be listed in the Works Cited page. Each citation style has its own formatting requirements for the Works Cited page. Works Cited pages are sometimes referred to as a Bibliography.

Zotero: a web-based database that can be used to help manage research. Zotero can track all of your citation information, create properly formatted bibliographies in any citation style with the click of a button.


The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language .(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), 9 December 2008 <http://www.bartleby.com/61/

Fair Use,Copyright, 2006, U.S. Copyright Office, 11 December 2008
<http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html>.

"Glossary,"SFU Library Plagiarism Tutorial, Simon Fraser University Library, 11 December 2008
<http://www.lib.sfu.ca/researchhelp/tutorials/interactive/plagiarism/tutorial/glossary.htm>.

"Glossary,"Plagiarism Prevention for Students, 2008, Cal State San Marcos Library, 11 December 2008
<http://library.csusm.edu/plagiarism/glossary.htm>.

Merriam-Webster Online. (Merriam-Webster, 2008), 18 December 2008
<http://www.merriam-webster.com/>.

"Plagiarism Glossary,"Plagiarism - University of Leeds Guide, University of Leeds, 11 December 2008
<http://www.lts.leeds.ac.uk/glossaries/search.php?SUBJECT=1>.

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