Ray Ball

Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology and Animal Studies


  • D.V.M. University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine

Courses Taught

  • AZ 231N Animal Diversity of Vertebrates
  • AZ 300 Wild Cat Science
  • AZ 360 Wildlife Rehabilitation
  • BI 314-001 Comparative Physiology Lecture
  • BI 314-002 Comparative Physiology Laboratory
  • BI 214-001 Animal Nutrition
  • BI 200-002 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

Research Interests

  • Nutrition as an environmental factor of animal health
  • Ecosystem Health/One Health
  • Epidemiology
  • Zoo and wildlife health and medicine
  • Shelter medicine and herd health

Selected publications

  • Trends of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) rehabilitation admissions 1991-2017. Ball, RL; Zgibor, J., Marku, M. BioRxiv preprint.  bioRxiv 773713; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/773713
  • Nutritional concerns of rehabilitated and long term captive manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with reference to healthy wild populations.  Ball, REuropean Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinaians Conference, Kolmarden Sweden, June 2019.
  • Recent Updates for Ante Mortem Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Zoo Animals. Lécu, A. & Ball, R. In: Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Volume 8. 2016. Elsevier Inc.
  • Antelope Anesthesia. In: Zoo Animal and wildlife anesthesia and immobilization, 2nd Edition. 2013.  Eds. Gary West, Nigel Caulkett, and Darryl Heard. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa.
  • Serum concentrations of amino acids, Fatty acids, vitamins A and E, and minerals in apparently healthy, free ranging southern giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffe).  Debra Schmidt, Ray L. Ball, Douw Grobler, Mark R. Ellersieck, Mark E. Griffin, Scott Citino. Zoo Biology, Volume 26, Issue 1, Date: January/February 2007, Pages: 13-25
  • Preliminary epidemiological finding using serology in an outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in managed Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at a single facility. Wildlife Conservation, Health and Disease Management: A Post Millennium Approach. Madras Veterinary College Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India, Feb 12-152010Certificate for Best Clinical Presentation.
  • Implementing a Low-Starch Biscuit-Free Diet in Zoo Gorillas: The Impact on Health. E.Less, R.Bergl, R Ball, et al. February 2014 Zoo Biology 33(1)
  • Sperm sex-sorting and preservation for managing the sex ratio and genetic diversity of the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). O’Brien JK, Roth TL, Stoops MA, Ball RL, Steinman KJ, Montano GA, Love CC, Robeck TR. Anim Reprod Sci. 2015 Jan;152:137-53
  • Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia and continuation of ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with cabergoline. Morfeld KA, Ball RL, Brown JL. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Sep;45(3):569-76.
  • Etodolac as an adjunct to managing osteoarthritis in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris.) Ray L. Ball, DVM, Laura Weiner, BS, and Angelica Richner, BA. Merial Control of Pain Award, Best Clinical Report, 200